28 May 2018

IMG-THUMBNAIL

说一下我知道的哈希算法和在常见组件中的应用。本文不涉及具体实现。

写在前面

哈希算法经常会被用到,比如我们Go里面的map,Java的HashMap,目前最流行的缓存Redis都大量用到了哈希算法。它们支持把很多类型的数据进行哈希计算,我们实际使用的时候并不用考虑哈希算法的实现。而其实不同的数据类型,所使用到的哈希算法并不一样。

DJB

下面是C语言实现。初始值是5381,遍历整个串,按照hash * 33 +c的算法计算。得到的结果就是哈希值。

unsigned long
    hash(unsigned char *str)
    {
        unsigned long hash = 5381;
        int c;

        while (c = *str++)
            hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + c; /* hash * 33 + c */

        return hash;
    }

里面涉及到两个神奇的数字,5381和33。为什么是这两个数?我还特意去查了查,说是经过大量实验,这两个的结果碰撞小,哈希结果分散。

还有一个事情很有意思,乘以33是用左移和加法实现的。底层库对性能要求高啊。

DJB 在 Redis中的应用

在Redis中,它被用来计算大小写不敏感的字符串哈希。

static uint32_t dict_hash_function_seed = 5381;
/* And a case insensitive hash function (based on djb hash) */
unsigned int dictGenCaseHashFunction(const unsigned char *buf, int len) {
    unsigned int hash = (unsigned int)dict_hash_function_seed;

    while (len--)
        hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + (tolower(*buf++)); /* hash * 33 + c */
    return hash;
}

算法和之前的一样,只是多了一个tolower函数把字符转成小写。

Java 字符串哈希

看了上面的再看Java内置字符串哈希就很有意思了。Java对象有个内置对象hash,它缓存了哈希结果,如果当前对象有缓存,直接返回。如果没有缓存,遍历整个字符串,按照hash * 31 + c的算法计算。

public int hashCode() {
    int h = hash;
    if (h == 0 && value.length > 0) {
        char val[] = value;

        for (int i = 0; i < value.length; i++) {
            h = 31 * h + val[i];
        }
        hash = h;
    }
    return h;
}

和DJB相比,初始值从5381变成了0,乘的系数从33变成了31。

FNV

这个算法之前写过《字符串查找算法(二)》,字符串每一位都看成是一个数字,32位的话看成是16777169进制的数字,计算当前串的哈希值就是在把当前串转成10进制。

const primeRK = 16777619

// hashstr returns the hash and the appropriate multiplicative
// factor for use in Rabin-Karp algorithm.
func hashstr(sep string) (uint32, uint32) {
    hash := uint32(0)
    for i := 0; i < len(sep); i++ {
        hash = hash*primeRK + uint32(sep[i])
    }
    var pow, sq uint32 = 1, primeRK
    for i := len(sep); i > 0; i >>= 1 {
        if i&1 != 0 {
            pow *= sq
        }
        // 只有32位,超出范围的会被丢掉
        sq *= sq
    }
    return hash, pow
}

这个算法的厉害之处在于他可以保存状态。比如有个字符串ab,它的哈希值是a*E+b=HashAB,如果计算bc的哈希值,可以利用第一次计算的结果(HashAB-a*E)*E+c=HashBC。这么一个转换例子里是两个字符效果不明显,如果当前串是100个字符,后移一位的哈希算法性能就会快很多。

在Golang里面字符串匹配算法查找用到了这个。

Thomas Wang’s 32 bit Mix Function

前面说的都是字符串的哈希算法,这次说整数的。

public
int hash32shift(int key)
{
    key = ~key + (key << 15); // key = (key << 15) - key - 1;
    key = key ^ (key >>> 12);
    key = key + (key << 2);
    key = key ^ (key >>> 4);
    key = key * 2057; // key = (key + (key << 3)) + (key << 11);
    key = key ^ (key >>> 16);
    return key;
}

Redis对于Key是整数类型时用了这个算法。

Murmur

就纯哈希算法来说,这个算法算是综合能力不错的算法了。碰撞小、性能好。

Hash           Lowercase      Random UUID  Numbers
=============  =============  ===========  ==============
Murmur            145 ns      259 ns          92 ns
                    6 collis    5 collis       0 collis
FNV-1a            152 ns      504 ns          86 ns
                    4 collis    4 collis       0 collis
FNV-1             184 ns      730 ns          92 ns
                    1 collis    5 collis       0 collis▪
DBJ2a             158 ns      443 ns          91 ns
                    5 collis    6 collis       0 collis▪▪▪
DJB2              156 ns      437 ns          93 ns
                    7 collis    6 collis       0 collis▪▪▪
SDBM              148 ns      484 ns          90 ns
                    4 collis    6 collis       0 collis**
SuperFastHash     164 ns      344 ns         118 ns
                   85 collis    4 collis   18742 collis
CRC32             250 ns      946 ns         130 ns
                    2 collis    0 collis       0 collis
LoseLose          338 ns        -             -
               215178 collis

一般在分布式系统中用的比较多。对于一个Key做哈希,把不同的请求转发到不同的服务器上面。

推荐一个Go的实现

CRC32

CRC32的哈希碰撞和murmur的差不多,但是CRC32可以使用CPU的硬件加速实现哈希提速。

在Codis上就使用了这个哈希算法做哈希分片,SlotId= crc32(key) % 1024

Codis使用Go语言实现,CRC32算法直接用了Go的原生包hash/crc32。这个包会提前判断当前CPU是否支持硬件加速:

func archAvailableIEEE() bool {
    return cpu.X86.HasPCLMULQDQ && cpu.X86.HasSSE41
}

memhash

Go语言内置的哈希表数据结构map,也是一个哈希结构,它内置的哈希算法更讲究。

这里用到的哈希算法是memhash,源代码在runtime/hash32.go里面。它基于谷歌的两个哈希算法实现。大家有兴趣的可以去研究下具体实现。

// Hashing algorithm inspired by
//   xxhash: https://code.google.com/p/xxhash/
// cityhash: https://code.google.com/p/cityhash/

memhash在具体实现时也用到了硬件加速。如果硬件支持,会用AES哈希算法。如果不支持,才会去用memhash。

func memhash(p unsafe.Pointer, seed, s uintptr) uintptr {
    if GOARCH == "386" && GOOS != "nacl" && useAeshash {
        return aeshash(p, seed, s)
    }
    h := uint32(seed + s*hashkey[0])

性能比较

memhash并不是可导出函数,我在runtime包里增加了一个memhash_test.go的测试文件,执行go test -benchmem -run=^$ -bench ^BenchmarkMemHash$

package runtime_test

import (
    . "runtime"
    "testing"
)

func BenchmarkMemHash(b *testing.B) {
    for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
        for _, g := range goldenMurmur3 {
            StringHash(g.in, 0)
        }
    }
}

type _Golden struct {
    out uint32
    in  string
}

var goldenMurmur3 = []_Golden{
    {0x00000000, ""},
    {0x3c2569b2, "a"},
    {0x9bbfd75f, "ab"},
    {0xb3dd93fa, "abc"},
    {0x43ed676a, "abcd"},
    {0xe89b9af6, "abcde"},
    {0x6181c085, "abcdef"},
    {0x883c9b06, "abcdefg"},
    {0x49ddccc4, "abcdefgh"},
    {0x421406f0, "abcdefghi"},
    {0x88927791, "abcdefghij"},
    {0x91e056d3, "Discard medicine more than two years old."},
    {0xc4d1cdf9, "He who has a shady past knows that nice guys finish last."},
    {0x92a09da9, "I wouldn't marry him with a ten foot pole."},
    {0xba22e6c4, "Free! Free!/A trip/to Mars/for 900/empty jars/Burma Shave"},
    {0xb3ba11cb, "The days of the digital watch are numbered.  -Tom Stoppard"},
    {0x941ada4d, "Nepal premier won't resign."},
    {0x03f1f7b4, "For every action there is an equal and opposite government program."},
    {0x03946117, "His money is twice tainted: 'taint yours and 'taint mine."},
    {0x91e89ce1, "There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in their home. -Ken Olsen, 1977"},
    {0xdc39bd00, "It's a tiny change to the code and not completely disgusting. - Bob Manchek"},
    {0xe898a1fa, "size:  a.out:  bad magic"},
    {0xcb5affb4, "The major problem is with sendmail.  -Mark Horton"},
    {0xc84510d4, "Give me a rock, paper and scissors and I will move the world.  CCFestoon"},
    {0xd4466554, "If the enemy is within range, then so are you."},
    {0xe718d618, "It's well we cannot hear the screams/That we create in others' dreams."},
    {0xa6fb1684, "You remind me of a TV show, but that's all right: I watch it anyway."},
    {0x65cb8d60, "C is as portable as Stonehedge!!"},
    {0x164935d1, "Even if I could be Shakespeare, I think I should still choose to be Faraday. - A. Huxley"},
    {0x33e03966, "The fugacity of a constituent in a mixture of gases at a given temperature is proportional to its mole fraction.  Lewis-Randall Rule"},
    {0x04944630, "How can you write a big system without C++?  -Paul Glick"},
}

结果:

BenchmarkMemHash-8   	 3000000	       475 ns/op	       0 B/op	       0 allocs/op

dgohash用Go实现了一些哈希算法,对比压测一下。

BenchmarkJava32-8          	  500000	      2548 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkDJB-8             	  500000	      2516 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkElf32-8           	  500000	      3204 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkJenkins32-8       	  500000	      3154 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkMarvin32-8        	  500000	      3375 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkMurmur-8          	 1000000	      2184 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkSDBM32-8          	  500000	      2789 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkSQLite32-8        	 1000000	      2419 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op
BenchmarkSuperFastHash-8   	 1000000	      2003 ns/op	    1456 B/op	      30 allocs/op 硬件加速的和这些比确实可以碾压。

参考文献

原文链接:常见的哈希算法和用途,转载请注明来源!

EOF

长期招聘 Golang 程序员,可以给我发简历


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